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 El Tiempo, Colombian News
coolmint204
Posted: Feb 24 2017, 10:57 PM


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Member No.: 1,493
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user posted image


--------------------
Colombia
Presidente Cesar Gaviria Trujillo
-BOP XV-

Rep. Philip Hayes
Philip Hayes, Democrat, R-OH
-1600 Penn-
------------------
[spoiler=Former]
BOP XIV: Francisco Franco/Juan Carlos I (Spain)
War on Terror: Andres Pastrana Arango (Colombia)
BOP XV: Virgilio Barco Vargas (Colombia)

[/spoiler]
Top
coolmint204
Posted: Mar 11 2017, 12:59 AM


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The Dawn of a New Decade
January 1990

user posted image
The Palace of Justice Siege (1985), a defining moment of the previous decade

We Colombians can all agree on one thing: our country is currently plagued with issues, and each time one is resolved, another springs up to take its place. After the National Front (1958-1974) was agreed upon to dismantle the brief nearly autocratic regime of Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (1953-1957), agreeing to alternate presidencies and control of Congress between the Liberal and Conservative Parties, the mess that was La Violencia came to a close, and the prospect of increase in unity and cooperation between parties began to look like a distinct possibility.

However, with it came another set of problems: the lack of representation and faith in the government, leading to the formation of guerrilla groups like M-19, FARC, ELN, among others. Another stroke of bad luck came with the rise of the drug trade and the Medellin Cartel, led by Pablo Escobar, who has damaged the reputation and stability of the country numerous times. The M-19 Palace of Justice Siege was rumoured to have Pablo Escobar as its mastermind, wanting to eliminate all evidence against him and his associates. Not only that, he is also rumoured to have also ordered the assasination of popular figurehead Luis Carlos Galan of the Liberal Party. There is also the continuing acts of terrorism done by Escobar and his allies over the past year, instilling fear into the general populace.

In the future, in the next decade, this might all be subject to change. President Virgilio Barco Vargas is planning on negotiating with the M-19 and integrate them peacefully back into society. The elections of 1990 will certainly decide the future of our country, choosing a new president and Congress, and the increasing opinion on constitutional reform led by the Septima Papeleta student movement might reform Colombia as a whole.

Will the drug trafficking problem be resolved? Will the guerrillas disappear one by one? Will there be a new Constitution by the end of the decade?

The answers to these questions, shall hopefully be revealed by the end of this decade, as we approach the new millenium.


--------------------
Colombia
Presidente Cesar Gaviria Trujillo
-BOP XV-

Rep. Philip Hayes
Philip Hayes, Democrat, R-OH
-1600 Penn-
------------------
[spoiler=Former]
BOP XIV: Francisco Franco/Juan Carlos I (Spain)
War on Terror: Andres Pastrana Arango (Colombia)
BOP XV: Virgilio Barco Vargas (Colombia)

[/spoiler]
Top
coolmint204
Posted: Mar 25 2017, 01:56 PM


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Joined: 3-December 16



The M-19 Demobilizes
March 1990

user posted image
The last to give up arms, Commander Carlos Pizarro gives up his weapon, wrapped up in the Colombian flag.

For the past few months, the Colombian government and the M-19 have been negotiating a peace deal, in order to stop the violence between the two. Across the last few weeks, the negotiations finally came to a close and the M-19 finally laid down their arms for peace.

The M-19, known fully as the Movimiento 19 de Abril, was organized after what was perceived as the "fraudulent" elections of 1970, wherein Misael Pastrana Borrero was given victory although many believed runner-up Gustavo Rojas Pinilla had in actuality won the election. Why was this believed? It was mostly due to the fact that the Liberal and Conservative Parties had agreed to alternating presidencies and power ever since teaming up to defeat Gustavo Rojas Pinillas in the 1954 elections, and during these elections, Gustavo Rojas was aiming to break it apart, failing in the process.

Across the 1970s, the M-19 grew in power, and became the second biggest guerilla group, after the FARC. During the 1980s, a ceasefire was agreed with the government, but broken by the M-19, claiming the government wasn't fulfilling their part of the agreement. Violence culminated in the dreaded Palace of Justice siege, where they took hostage the seat of the judicial branch of the Colombian government in an attempt to "have President Belisario Betancurt be tried for his betrayal of the country's desire for peace". President Betancurt, not wanting to surrender to the guerilla group, engaged in a controversial move of attacking the Palace of Justice with people still inside, and during the ongoing battle the Palace of Justice fell in flames yet again (for the second time), and many people, including innocent civilians and commanders of the M-19, died during the process.

Finally, the government and the M-19 agreed to meet one last time to end this bloodshed just last year, and while the M-19 abandoned their violent fight against the government, now they strive for continuing the fight for reform politically, creating the Alianza Democratica M-19, a political party headed by Carlos Pizarro, striving for the presidency, which is often seen with good numbers in the polling, though behind Luis Carlos Galan's successor, Cesar Gaviria.

EDIT, APRIL 1990: On April 26, 1990, Carlos Pizarro was assasinated by a paramilitary thug. Antonio Navarro Wolff will stand in his place for the presidential elections, joining many other presidential nominees who stand in other people's stead because of the violent assasination of several nominees.

This post has been edited by coolmint204 on Mar 25 2017, 01:58 PM


--------------------
Colombia
Presidente Cesar Gaviria Trujillo
-BOP XV-

Rep. Philip Hayes
Philip Hayes, Democrat, R-OH
-1600 Penn-
------------------
[spoiler=Former]
BOP XIV: Francisco Franco/Juan Carlos I (Spain)
War on Terror: Andres Pastrana Arango (Colombia)
BOP XV: Virgilio Barco Vargas (Colombia)

[/spoiler]
Top
coolmint204
Posted: Mar 25 2017, 02:53 PM


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Group: Members
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Member No.: 1,493
Joined: 3-December 16



La Septima Papeleta
March 1990

user posted image
The student leaders of the Septima Papeleta movement, in front of the National Capitol

The March 1990 elections, being quite full with 6 elections being held at the same time, being senators, representatives, members of departamental assemblies, municipal councilmen, and mayors, along with the official nomination for the Liberal Party candidate, had a shocking new inclusion, though not quite official, distributed around the polling: the seventh option (Septima Papeleta), voting YES for a Constituent Assembly to be called, to revise or create a new Constitution for the Colombian people.

This is not really new, as the M-19 during their peace processes have called for one as well, and our current consitution dates back to 1886, way back when Rafael Nuñez was president. The main struggle against consitutional reform by the government is the extradition clause, since if a new one is created and extradition remains legal, it will sure incur more wrath from the drug cartels, which have agreed to unite forces in case of such an event occuring.

The movement, organized by university students, campaigned heavily for the inclusion of this vote in the official polling, and when they weren't given a response, they themselves took it to handing out the votes to be deposited in the polling booths alongside the other official votes. Although not official, it gathered around 2 million votes, about a third of the total people that voted for these elections. Finally, the Surpreme Court validated their efforts, making it an official referendum. However, in light of new presidential elections coming up in May, it rests on the new president whether to really follow through or not.


--------------------
Colombia
Presidente Cesar Gaviria Trujillo
-BOP XV-

Rep. Philip Hayes
Philip Hayes, Democrat, R-OH
-1600 Penn-
------------------
[spoiler=Former]
BOP XIV: Francisco Franco/Juan Carlos I (Spain)
War on Terror: Andres Pastrana Arango (Colombia)
BOP XV: Virgilio Barco Vargas (Colombia)

[/spoiler]
Top
coolmint204
Posted: Apr 5 2017, 02:03 AM


El Propio
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Joined: 3-December 16



Presidential Elections of 1990
May-June 1990

user posted image
The ballot for voting for the president, before Carlos Pizarro's assasination

The elections for the new President of Colombia have officially finished, with Cesar Gaviria of the Liberal Party winning in a landslide, receiving almost more votes than the next three candidates combined. The final tally for the six most voted for candidates are as follows, with other statistics for general knowledge about the election:

César Gaviria (Liberal Party) 2,891,808 (48.2%)
Álvaro Gómez Hurtado (National Salvation Movement) 1,433,913 (23.9%)
Antonio Navarro Wolff (Democratic Alliance M-19) 754,740 (12.6%)
Rodrigo Hernán Lloreda Caicedo (Social Conservative Party) 735,374 (12.3%)
Regina Betancur de Liska (Metapolitical Unitary Movement) 37,537 (0.6%)
Claudia Rodríguez de Castellanos (Christian National Party) 33,645 (0.6%)

Invalid/blank votes 123,029
Total number of votes 6,047,566
Registered voters/turnout 13,903,324 43.5%

The results came about like everyone pretty much expected, with the top three parties being ones that wish to change Colombia in a major way: the Liberal Party, headed by Luis Carlos Galan's successor, which will no doubt follow Galan's New Liberalism plans; the National Salvation Movement, which largely follow the Opposition's Conservative policies while being dissidents of the party itself; and the Democratic Alliance M-19, the political party of the recently disarmed M-19, which, with increase in popularity because of their disarmament and assasination of Carlos Pizarro, managed to get more votes than the traditional Conservative Party.

As such, new President Cesar Gaviria Trujillo will take office on August 7, 1990. Here's to hoping we have elected the right man for the job, one that will hopefully bring prosperity and peace to the nation!


--------------------
Colombia
Presidente Cesar Gaviria Trujillo
-BOP XV-

Rep. Philip Hayes
Philip Hayes, Democrat, R-OH
-1600 Penn-
------------------
[spoiler=Former]
BOP XIV: Francisco Franco/Juan Carlos I (Spain)
War on Terror: Andres Pastrana Arango (Colombia)
BOP XV: Virgilio Barco Vargas (Colombia)

[/spoiler]
Top
coolmint204
Posted: Apr 7 2017, 08:37 PM


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Joined: 3-December 16



Gaviria, Presidente
August 1990

user posted image
New President Cesar Gaviria Trujillo with his spouse, Ana Milena Muñoz

The time has come yet again, and President Virgilio Barco Vargas has ceded power to his successor, Cesar Gaviria, elected by the Colombian people, to become the 55th President of Colombia. His term began on August 7, 1990, and will end on that same day, 4 years later, on 1994.

Cesar Gaviria Trujillo, born in Pereira in 1947, was first introduced into politics after completing his studies to become an economist at the Universidad de los Andes, returning to his native home and leading and directing the Pereiran newspaper La Tarde.

A friend and follower of Luis Carlos Galan, he brought the political ideas of Galanismo to the House of Representatives from 1974-1983, becoming its President for a year in 1983. He was later called to become the Minister of Finance and Public Credit under Vargas from 1986-1987, and later Minister of Government until 1989.

Assuming the role of the President, Gaviria set out his goals for the coming eight years, laid out in a handy and creative acronym for all to remember:

P- Proteccion al Ciudadano, through creating more efficient means to combat drugdealers and rebel groups
U- Union Colombiana, joining all the country's concerns and ideas to draft the new Constitution
T- Tactica Internacional, promising to be more involved on international affairs and pursue international cooperation whenever possible
A- Apertura Economica, opening up trade to more nations and reducing tariff rates.

EDIT: Apparently, the main translator and editor for the English version of El Tiempo thought it would be funny to rearrange the acronym to make it spell out an inappropriate term. We assure you that the person who did this has been fired, and we publicly apologize to the President and Colombia as a whole.

This post has been edited by coolmint204 on Apr 7 2017, 08:39 PM


--------------------
Colombia
Presidente Cesar Gaviria Trujillo
-BOP XV-

Rep. Philip Hayes
Philip Hayes, Democrat, R-OH
-1600 Penn-
------------------
[spoiler=Former]
BOP XIV: Francisco Franco/Juan Carlos I (Spain)
War on Terror: Andres Pastrana Arango (Colombia)
BOP XV: Virgilio Barco Vargas (Colombia)

[/spoiler]
Top
coolmint204
Posted: Apr 23 2017, 10:46 PM


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Group: Members
Posts: 123
Member No.: 1,493
Joined: 3-December 16



La Asamblea Constituyente
December 1990

user posted image
The members of the Constituent Assembly.

The elections for the members of the Constituent Assembly have finished, and with it, 70 different individuals will gather next February to begin drafting the new Constitution, which will hopefully bring about new and better change to Colombia as a whole, in light of recent national and international events which make these changes necessary.

The following Parties and organizations will be represented in next year's Constituent Assembly:

Liberal Party (25 members)
Democratic Alliance M-19 (19 members)
National Salvation Movement (11 members)
Social Conservative Party (9 members)
Christian Union Movement (2 members)
Patriotic Union (2 members)
Indigenous Movements (2 members)

Being the parties with the most members, the Liberal Party, Democratic Alliance M-19 and the National Salvation Movement have agreed to a joint tripartite co-presidency consisting of Horacio Serpa (Liberal Party), Antonio Navarro Wolff (Democratic Alliance M-19), and Alvaro Gomez Hurtado (National Salvation Movement).

To make all the necessary changes and draft the constitution in the shortest time possible, the Constituent Assembly will be divided by the following Committees:

1. Democratic principles, rights and Constitutional reform
2. Regional Autonomy
3. Government and Congressional Reform
4. Public Ministry and delivery of Justice
5. Economic, Social and Ecological problems


--------------------
Colombia
Presidente Cesar Gaviria Trujillo
-BOP XV-

Rep. Philip Hayes
Philip Hayes, Democrat, R-OH
-1600 Penn-
------------------
[spoiler=Former]
BOP XIV: Francisco Franco/Juan Carlos I (Spain)
War on Terror: Andres Pastrana Arango (Colombia)
BOP XV: Virgilio Barco Vargas (Colombia)

[/spoiler]
Top
coolmint204
Posted: May 17 2017, 02:15 PM


El Propio
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Group: Members
Posts: 123
Member No.: 1,493
Joined: 3-December 16



The Constitution of 1991
July 1991

user posted image
President Gaviria signing the new Constitution of 1991

After much deliberation and debate, across several months, the Constituent Assembly has finalized its work and has drafted up a new Constitution, to replace the over 100 year old previous one, of 1886. The Constitution is also now focused on protecting individual rights, including the third generation rights, concerning groups of people in general. To summarize, the biggest changes to the government and legality of certain actions are:

1. Freedom of Religion, removing Catholicism as the official state religion, as well as removing the large influence of religion in education and marriage.

2. Allowing for proper representation of minorities in Congress, as now indigenous and afrocolombian citizens have special seats reserved in Congress to advocate for their interests.

3. Gender equality, declaring man and woman have equal rights before the law.

4. New mechanisms of public participation in politics, like the plebiscite, the referendum, the open cabildo, the popular consultation, the initiative and the recall.

5. Definition of emergency powers bestowed upon the president in times of war, internal conflict or overall national emergency.

6. Establishes the Office of the Attorney General of Colombia, based on other Attorney General powers used worldwide.

7. Establishes the Constitutional Court of Colombia, with the power of judicial review and interpretation of the Constitution.

8. The Bank of the Republic of Colombia is now independent, and is now able to control inflation through controlling the purchasing power of currency.

9. Establishes the Ombudsman's Office of Colombia, charged with overseeing the protection of civil and human rights of Colombians.

10. The position of Vicepresident was reestablished, and is now elected popularly through a joint ballot with the President.

11. For presidential elections, a second round was added, to allow for more parties to participate equally and not be a simple two-party system.

12. Increased descentralization of power, as now mayors and governors are elected popularly instead of by the President, as well as the city councils and department assemblies.

13. Double nationality is allowed.

14. Allows for a motion of no confidence to be able to be held in Congress to remove a member of the executive branch from power

15. Extradition of Colombian citizens is now illegal.


--------------------
Colombia
Presidente Cesar Gaviria Trujillo
-BOP XV-

Rep. Philip Hayes
Philip Hayes, Democrat, R-OH
-1600 Penn-
------------------
[spoiler=Former]
BOP XIV: Francisco Franco/Juan Carlos I (Spain)
War on Terror: Andres Pastrana Arango (Colombia)
BOP XV: Virgilio Barco Vargas (Colombia)

[/spoiler]
Top
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